• 1.      As a particle is accelerated close to the speed of light (c) mass grows greater until the speed of light (c) is reached and mass is infinite, described by the Loretz Transformation, and, formulated by E = MC2.
  • 2.      It follows that if a particle is decelerated to absolute zero external motion, that particle ceases to exist in this universe and measures as zero mass described by the Big Bang singularity.

When considering fundamental particles, the thoughts below occurred regarding absolute, and relative motion.

I can imagine a particle of matter moving at zero external motion having zero mass (In the Absolute Zero argument number 3 in “PROOF OF ABSOLUTE MOTION: PAGE 1”). I could further imagine a particle with zero external motion spinning on its axis, giving it 2 types of motion, external and internal.

  • Generally, the idea of a fundamental particle with absolute zero external motion does not make very much sense in a universe in motion, however, with the concept of the Big Bang comes a concept of a universe reduced to a single point and a fundamental particle having “absolute zero external motion” then becomes not only possible, but, the only possible external motion.
  • The first question asked about this fundamental particle in a Big Bang Singularity, “What if this particle with zero external velocity had internal velocity – call it spin – of the speed of light (c)?”
  • If that were the case, then the limit of external velocity for such a particle would be the speed of light (c), logically. No other possibility would exist.
  • It is also reasonable to say that the spin of this fundamental particle would need to be perpendicular to the external velocity of the fundamental particle. If it wasn’t perpendicular when the fundamental particle was accelerated the internal spin would exceed the speed of light limitation.
  • Newton’s first law of motion states that an object in motion tends to stay in motion until an external force acts upon it. The external velocity (EV) and internal velocity (IV) of a fundamental particle will remain unchanged until an external force acts upon it.
  • What if this fundamental particle’s (EV) accelerated and it’s mass increased? Its perpendicular internal velocity (IV), spin, should decelerate. This would be because of the rules for motion being limited to the speed of light. This behavior would be consistent with the rules of physics that indicate the speed of light (c) is the limit of speed,
  • This “change” would be justified by Newton’s first law of motion, as an external force must have acted upon it for this change to have occurred. 
  • As a particles’ absolute external velocity (AEV) increases its perpendicular internal spin of (c) would exceed the speed of light if the spin, (AIV), didn’t decelerate at an equivalent rate to the acceleration. 
  • A particle of zero mass, zero velocity, spinning at the speed of light, that decelerates spin at the same rate external motion accelerates, indicates the actual motion of the fundamental particle, when these two motions are added together, is always equal to the speed of light (c). FP motion = (AEV) U (AIV) = c

1.      Definition: Proto-Physics defines a Fundamental Particle (FP) as having a combined external and internal motion of the speed of light. For example – a fundamental particle that has the absolute external motion is 1/20th the speed of light has perpendicular internal motion of 19/20th the speed of light.

RULE: The sum of the absolute external and absolute internal motion of a fundamental particle will always equal the speed of light (c). This applies to all FP’s.

2.      I can imagine another fundamental particle with absolute external velocity (AEV) of the speed of light (c) having infinite mass and absolute zero internal velocity (AIV).

RULE: FP motion = (AEV) U (AIV) = c

3.      A particle reaching the speed of light (c) must have absolute zero internal velocity (AIV) or spin.

4.      The Big Bang provides a boundry of zero and another boundry of the speed of light (c) for the graph of the fundamental particle at any motion with any mass.

For the reasoning behind the Proto-Physics model click on this link:

Summary 1 – 5:

Very little new ground is covered in the first 3 sections. Few can argue that mass and energy are related to one another. Einstein’s formula, E = MCs , has established that accelerating matter increases its’ mass, and, decelerating it decreases its’ mass. It is reasonable to say that if mass is infinite when accelerated to the speed of light, it is zero when decelerated to absolute zero velocity. In section 4 a new concept described in Proto-Physics shows that a fundamental particle has 2 absolute motions, external motion and a perpendicular internal motion. And, in section 5 the number zero is added to a Physics model. A number that wasn’t there before. And, like mathematics, this zero provides the fundamental particles of Proto-Physics the entire mathematics spectrum for particles in motion, zero to infinity.

SECTION 6 – 10:

At this point it is clear that applying these motions to our day-to-day interaction with matter is challenging. However, if the concept of the Big Bang is added to this thread of reasoning the graph in the beginning of section 6 – 10 begins to take shape. In this section the mass of a fundamental particle grows from zero to infinite as motion increases from zero to the speed of light (c). The curve of binding energy and the Lorentz curve are displayed. In addition, the new terms of “relative motion” and “absolute motion” are added to the vocabulary unique to Proto-Physics.

5.         Proto-Physics describes internal and external motions, and the (NR) and Relative Motion Graph on the following page shows the behavior of a fundamental particle as its’ mass changes when its motion is accelerated or decelerated.

    • There are absolutes of velocity in the universe. These velocities when measured from the Big Bang are not relative but absolute. Zero velocity on this graph is absolute zero velocity and section 4ai above explains this..
    • These two absolute velocities form the left and right boundaries on this graph. The border of zero absolute velocity is on the left, and, the border of the speed of light  (c) absolute velocity is on the right. 
    • At absolute zero velocity the fundamental particle spins at the speed of light (c).
    • At the speed of light (c) the fundamental particle does not spin at all.
    • Between the borders on the left and right of the graph below are all the possible external absolute velocities the fundamental particle can move at.
    • It is the absolute external velocity (AEV), with the fundamental particles absolute internal velocity (AIV) that determine where a particle falls on this graph.


6.      The two motions of the fundamental particle leads to a way of defining a particles by these 2 motions. You could say that a photon is a particle that has zero mass; therefore it would be a particle with 0 external velocity (EV) and (c) internal velocity (IV) (spin). 

    • Photon = 0 external velocity (AEV) + (c) absolute internal velocity (AIV), and Planck’s Constant (h).
    • Another fundamental particle, in measuring its absolute motion, could move at  1/10 (c) absolute external velocity (AEV) and 9/10 (c) internal velocity (AIV), for example. This would be a sub-atomic particle.
    • Atomic (Elemental) fundamental particles begin at ¼ (c) AEV and ¾ (c) AIV
    • As fundamental particles approach ½ (c) AEV and ½ (c) AIV these types of fundamental particles repel one another.
    • As fundamental particles exceed ¾ (c) AEV these paticles are the electro-magnetic spectrum components.

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